Old Cigarette Ads

Tobacco advertising is the advertising of tobacco products or use (typically cigarette smoking) by the tobacco industry through a variety of media including sponsorship, particularly of sporting events. It is now one of the most highly regulated forms of marketing. Some or all forms of tobacco advertising are banned in many countries. 1789–1870 Edit This advertisement for "Egyptian Deities" cigarettes depicts an early 20th century woman holding a package of cigarettes. "Egyptian Deities" advertisement. Early 20th century. The first known advertisement in the United States was for the snuff and tobacco products of P. Lorillard and Company and was placed in the New York daily paper in 1789. Advertising was an emerging concept, and tobacco-related advertisements were not seen as any different from those for other products: tobacco's negative impact on health was unknown at the time. Local and regional newspapers were used because of the small-scale production and transportation of these goods. The first real brand name to become known on a bigger scale in the USA was "Bull Durham" which emerged in 1868, with the advertising placing the emphasis on how easy it was "to roll your own".[1] Color lithography (1870–1900) Edit German cigarette ad by Hans Rudi Erdt (1915) The development of color lithography in the late 1870s allowed the companies to create attractive images to better present their products. This led to the printing of pictures onto the cigarette cards, previously only used to stiffen the packaging but now turned into an early marketing concept.[2] By the last quarter of the 19th century, magazines such as Punch carried advertisements for different brands of cigarettes, snuff, and pipe tobacco. Advertising was significantly helped by the distribution of free or subsidized branded cigarettes to troops during World War I and World War II. The second invention was a cigarette-making machine developed in the 1880s.[3] Modern advertising (1920s) Edit Modern advertising was created with the innovative techniques used in tobacco advertising beginning in the 1920s.[4][5] 1930–99 Edit Early 20th-century advertisements of Tobacco products made in Durham, NC Winchester cigarettes advertisement in front of a drug store in Montreal, Quebec in 1942 Advertising in the decades leading up to World War II consisted primarily of full page, color magazine and newspaper advertisements. Many companies created slogans for their specific cigarettes and also gained endorsements from famous men and women. Some advertisements even contained children or doctors in their efforts to sway new customers to their specific brand. Much of these advertisements sought to make smoking appear fashionable and modern to men and women. Also, since the health effects of smoking weren't entirely proven at this time, the only real opposing argument to smoking was made on moral grounds. However, there were still a substantial number of doctors and scientists who believed there was a health risk associated with smoking cigarettes.[6] During World War II, cigarettes were included in American soldier's C-rations since many tobacco companies sent the soldiers cigarettes for free. Cigarette sales reached an all-time high at this point, as cigarette companies were not only able to get soldiers addicted to tobacco, but specific brands also found a new loyal group of customers as soldiers who smoked their cigarettes returned from the war.[7] U.S. tobacco ads from the 20th century After World War II, cigarette companies advertised frequently on television programs. To combat this move by the cigarette companies, the Federal Communications Commission required television stations to air anti-smoking advertisements at no cost to the organizations providing such advertisements. In 1970, Congress took their anti-smoking initiative one step further and passed the Public Health Cigarette Smoking Act, banning the advertising of cigarettes on television and radio starting on January 2, 1971. After the television ban, most cigarette advertising took place in magazines, newspapers, and on billboards. However, in 1999 all cigarette billboard advertisements were replaced with anti-smoking messages, with some of these anti-smoking messages playing parodies of cigarette companies advertising figures and slogans. Since 1984, cigarette companies have also been forced to place Surgeon's General warnings on all cigarette packs and advertisements because of the passing of the Federal Cigarette Labeling and Advertising Act.[8] Restrictions on cigarette companies became even tighter in 2010 with the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act. The act prohibits tobacco companies from sponsoring sports, music, and other cultural events and also prevents the display of their logos or products on T-shirts, hats, or other apparel.[9] The constitutionality of both this act and the Food and Drug Administration's new graphic cigarette warning labels are being questioned under cigarette companies' first amendment rights.[10] 2000 onwards Edit Some mini motorcycles have a cigarette or other tobacco trademark applied; such branded mini-motorcycles have been found in New Zealand in breach of tobacco advertising legislation.[11] Campaigns Edit 1950–70 Edit Before the 1970s, most tobacco advertising was legal in the United States and most European nations. In the United States, in the 1950s and 1960s, cigarette brands frequently sponsored television shows—most notably To Tell the Truth and I've Got a Secret. One of the most famous television jingles of the era came from an advertisement for Winston cigarettes. The slogan "Winston tastes good like a cigarette should!" proved to be catchy, and is still quoted today. When used to introduce Gunsmoke (gun = smoke), two gun shots were heard in the middle of the jingle just when listeners were expecting to hear the word "cigarette". Other popular slogans from the 1960s were "Us Tareyton smokers would rather fight than switch!," which was used to advertise Tareyton cigarettes, and "I'd Walk a Mile for a Camel". In 1954, tobacco companies ran the ad "A Frank Statement." The ad was the first in a campaign to dispute reports that smoking cigarettes could cause lung cancer and had other dangerous health effects.[12] In the 1950s, manufacturers began adding filter tips to cigarettes to remove some of the tar and nicotine as they were smoked. "Safer," "less potent" cigarette brands were also introduced. Light cigarettes became so popular that, as of 2004, half of American smokers preferred them over regular cigarettes,.[13] According to The Federal Government's National Cancer Institute (NCI), light cigarettes provide no benefit to smokers' health.[14][15] In 1964, Smoking and Health: Report of the Advisory Committee to the Surgeon General of the United States was published. It was based on over 7000 scientific articles that linked tobacco use with cancer and other diseases. This report led to laws requiring warning labels on tobacco products and to restrictions on tobacco advertisements. As these began to come into force, tobacco marketing became more subtle, and a number of advertisements designed to appeal to children, particularly those featuring Joe Camel resulting in increased awareness and uptake of smoking among children.[16] However, restrictions did have an effect on adult quit rates, with its use declining to the point that by 2004, nearly half of all Americans who had ever smoked had quit.[17] Customer loyalty Edit Tobacco companies use advertising to drive brand awareness and brand preference amongst smokers, in order to drive sales and to increase brand and customer loyalty. One of the original forms of this was the inclusion of cigarette cards, a collectible set of ephemera. Film Edit Universal Pictures has a "Policy Regarding Tobacco Depictions in Films". In films anticipated to be released in the United States with a G, PG or PG-13 rating, smoking incidents (depiction of tobacco smoking, tobacco-related signage or paraphernalia) appear only when there is a substantial reason for doing so. In that case, the film is released with a health warning in end credits, DVD packaging, etc.[18] Since May 2007, the Motion Picture Association of America may give a film glamorizing smoking or depicting pervasive smoking outside of a historic or other mitigating context a higher rating.[19] There have also been moves to reduce the depiction of protagonists smoking in television shows, especially those aimed at children. For example, Ted Turner took steps to remove or edit scenes that depict characters in cartoons such as Tom and Jerry, The Flintstones and Scooby-Doo,[20] which are shown on his Cartoon Network and Boomerang television channels. Video game content rating systems have also looked at the usage of tobacco in video games; a video game depicting the use of tobacco may have a higher rating. One movie depicting smokeless tobacco use was the 2003 John Travolta movie Basic where smokeless brand Skoal was used.[21][22] Web Edit Both Google and Microsoft have policies that prohibit the promotion of tobacco products on their advertising networks.[23][24] However, some tobacco retailers are able to circumvent these policies by creating landing pages that promote tobacco accessories such as cigar humidors and lighters. Target markets Edit Youth Edit Young girl in wearing a Marlboro shirt in the 1980s Prior to 1964, many of the cigarette companies advertised their brand by claiming that their product did not have serious health risks. A couple of examples would be "Play safe with Philip Morris" and "More doctors smoke Camels". Such claims were made both to increase the sales of their product and to combat the increasing public knowledge of smoking's negative health effects.[25] A majority of people do not start smoking at adulthood because of informed decision-making. As a result, much cigarette advertising was intended to target youth and depicted youths smoking and using tobacco as a form of leisure and enjoyment.[26] Major cigarette companies would advertise their brands in popular TV shows such as The Flintstones and The Beverly Hillbillies, which were watched by many children and teens.[27] In 1964, after facing much pressure from the public, The Cigarette Advertising Code was created by the Tobacco companies, which prohibited advertising directed to youth.[25] The use of celebrities and famous athletes would also encourage smoking for youth. Popular comedian Bob Hope was used to advertise for cigarette companies.[25] The African-American magazine Ebony often used athletes to advertise major cigarette brands.[28] Before 2009, many tobacco companies made flavored tobacco packaged often in colorful candy like wrappers to attract new users, many of which were a younger audience. However these flavored cigarettes were banned on September 22, 2009 by the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act. Despite this initiative, flavored cigarettes are still on the rise because tobacco companies change their products slightly so they are filtered or slim cigarettes, which are not banned by the act.[clarification needed][29] Woman smoking in Japan The intended audience of tobacco advertising has changed throughout the years, with some brands specifically targeted towards a particular demographic. According to Reynolds American Inc, the Joe Camel campaign in the United States was created to advertise Camel brand to young adult smokers. Class action plaintiffs and politicians described the Joe Camel images as a "cartoon" intended to advertise the product to people below the legal smoking age. Under pressure from various anti-smoking groups, the Federal Trade Commission, and the U.S. Congress, Camel ended the campaign on 10 July 1997. Women Edit Tobacco companies have frequently targeted the female market, seeing it as a potential growth area as the largest market segment has traditionally been male. The introduction of the 1960s Virginia Slims brand, and in particular its "You've Come a Long Way Baby" and "Slimmer than the fat cigarettes men smoke" campaigns, was specifically aimed at women.[30] Poor and marginalized communities Edit When marketing cigarettes to the developing world, tobacco companies use the Western lifestyle as a mechanism to lure this demographic into purchasing their products.[31] The tobacco industry targeted young rural men by creating advertisements with images of cowboys, hunters, and race car drivers.Teens in rural areas are less likely to be exposed to anti-tobacco messages in the media. Low income and predominantly minority neighborhoods often have more tobacco retailers and more tobacco advertising than other neighborhoods.[32] Tobacco industry have been targeting marginalized groups over the years, including African Americans,[33] sexual minorities,[34] and even the homeless and the mentally ill.[35] According to the CDC Tobacco Product Use Among Adults 2015 report, American Indian/Alaska Native, non-Hispanic, 0–12 yrs (no diploma) and GED level of education, annual household income <$35,000, the LGB population, the uninsured, and those under serious psychological distress have the highest reported percentage of any tobacco product use.[36] Tobacco industry focus their advertisement towards these vulnerable groups, contributing to the large disparity in smoking and health problems.[37] Budgets Edit Tobacco companies have had particularly large budgets for their advertising campaigns. The Federal Trade Commission claimed that cigarette manufacturers spent $8.24 billion on advertising and promotion in 1999, the highest amount ever at that time. The FTC later claimed that in 2005, cigarette companies spent $13.11 billion on advertising and promotion, down from $15.12 billion in 2003, but nearly double what was spent in 1998. The increase, despite restrictions on the advertising in most countries, was an attempt at appealing to a younger audience, including multi-purchase offers and giveaways such as hats and lighters, along with the more traditional store and magazine advertising.[30] Marketing consultants ACNielsen announced that, during the period September 2001 to August 2002, tobacco companies advertising in the UK spent £25 million, excluding sponsorship and indirect advertising, broken down as follows: £11 million on press advertising £13.2 million on billboards £714,550 on radio advertising £106,253 on direct mail advertising Figures from around that time also estimated that the companies spent £8m a year sponsoring sporting events and teams (excluding Formula One) and a further £70m on Formula One in the UK.[38] The £25 million spent in the UK amounted to approximately $0.60 USD per person in 2002. The 15.12 billion spent in the United States in 2003 amounted to more than $45 for every person in the United States, more than $36 million per day, and more than $290 for each U.S. adult smoker. Advertisement c
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