Chapter 22: The Respiratory System

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an image of the human brain with labels on each side and labeled areas labelled below
Breathing can also be a voluntary action. This occurs in the motor cortex of the cerebrum that allows a person to hold one's breath under water or when one is singing, for example. Holding one's breath can only go on for so long, there comes a "breaking point" where there is too much CO2 that needs to be released. This is where breathing changes from voluntary to involuntary
an image of the human body with labels on its organs and their major functions in it
Breathing is automatic and is controlled by the medulla oblongata and the pons. It is what allows you to continue breathing after you faint or pass out. This process automatically takes over and allows you to breathe once again. It communicated to the diaphragm and the intercostal muscles to begin contracting and relaxing.
an image of the different types of bronchles and their functions in human body
Chronic Bronchitis is the inflammation of the bronchioles, infection of the lower respiratory tract, as wells as it immobilizes cilia which prevents mucous from begin able to be expelled from the lungs. Chronic bronchitis can be caused by heavy cigarette use.
an image of the human body's major organs and their corresponding functions in it
Hypoxia - WikiofScience
Hypoxia is a respiratory disorder due to a deficiency of oxygen in the tissues or even the inability to use oxygen. Hypoxemic hypoxia - low arterial PO2. Ischemic hypoxia - inadequate circulation of the blood. Anemic hypoxia - due to anemia, blood cannot carry enough oxygen. Histotoxic anemia - metabolic person prevents the tissues from using the oxygen that is being delivered to them. Cyanosis is a good indicator of hypoxia (blueness of skin).
the diagram shows different types of blood vessels and their major functions, including oxygen gas
SYSTEMIC GAS EXCHANGE: This is the unloading of O2 and loading of CO2 at the systemic capillaries. The blue arrows above represent the three mechanisms of CO2 loading and transport. The red arrows above show the two mechanisms of O2 unloading. ALVEOLAR GAS EXCHANGE: Essentially the reverse of the systemic gas exchange.
the anatomy of the heart and lungs
The diagram above represents the changes in Po2 and Pco2 along the circulatory route. The pressure gradient of gases is as follows: Po2 in the alveolar air is about 104 mm Hg and 40 mm Hg in blood. Before the blood leaves the lung, the pressure drops to 95 mm Hg. The Pco2 is is 46 mm Hg in the blood arriving the alveolus and 40 mm Hg in alveolar air. CO2 is 20 times as soluble as O2. Equal amounts of these two gases are exchanged because CO2 is able to diffuse more rapidly.
a plot showing the effect of different types of air pollution in an area with high temperature and low oxygen levels
Oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve: In the alveolar capillaries O2 concentration is high and the hemoglobin can become saturated with oxygen and later release oxygen in the systemic capillaries. Each hemoglobin can carry 4 oxygen molecules at max. Once the first O2 molecule binds, hemoglobin undergoes a conformational change resulting in an increase in the affinity for the other 3 molecules of O2 to bind. This is seen through the steep slope, before O2 is unloaded.
the muscles are shown in this drawing
Intercostal Muscles: Rib Pain, Breathing Difficulty - The Wellness Digest
External & Internal intercostals: Both of these muscles are involved in inspiration and expiration. The muscles of inspiration include: sternocleidomastoid, scalenes, external intercostals, diaphragm, and pectorals minor. The muscles of (forced) expiration include: internal intercostals, diaphragm, rectus abdominis, and the external oblique muscles.
an image of a diagram of the parts of a human body
The pleurae of the lung protect and compartmentalize the lung from surrounding structures. The visceral pleura extend into the fissure of the lung, folds back on itself, forming the parietal pleura which attaches to the mediastinum, inner rib cage, and superior surface of the diaphragm. The space between the two is the pleural cavity which has pleural fluid functioning to reduce friction and keep the two pleurae from separating.
an animal cell is shown in this image
Visuals Unlimited
Alveolar macrophages are found in and between the alveoli. These phagocytize dust particles that are not caught higher up in the respiratory tract. Alveoli are surrounded by blood capillaries and the barrier between the air and blood in this space is called the respiratory membrane. This consists of the squamous alveolar cell, the squamous endothelial cell (of the capillary), and the shared basement membrane. [Picture is of the inner surface of an alveolus w/ macrophage or phagocyte]
the heart and blood vessels are shown in this medical illustration, which depicts an external artery
Lung Alveolus, Microscopic View - Nucleus Catalog
There are around 150 million alveoli in a human lung. 95% of the alveolar surface area is made of squamous (type I) alveolar cells which allow for gas diffusion between air and blood and 5% of great (type II) alveolar cells which are cuboidal shaped and repair the alveolar epithelium and secrete pulmonary surfactant. Pulmonary surfactant coats the alveoli &small bronchioles and prevents collapsing.
a drawing of a tree with an owl sitting on it's trunk and leaves
The bronchiole tree starts with primary bronchi, which then branch into secondary (lobar) bronchi, then tertiary (segmental) bronchi. Next are the bronchioles, which branch into terminal bronchioles and then respiratory bronchioles. They end in the small sacs called alveoli, which are where gas exchange takes place.
an image of a tree with its roots and branches labeled in red ink on white paper
The larynx (voicebox) is a cartilaginous chamber. The epiglottis blocks the larynx during swallowing. The glottis is the space below this flap of tissue. The trachea lies anterior to the esophagus and is composed of 16-20 cartilaginous C-shaped rings. The posterior space in the rings allows room for the esophagus to expand during swallowing. The trachea is lined with ciliated pseudostratified epithelium- the "mucociliary escalator".
the upper respiratory trache is shown in this diagram with labels on it
The upper respiratory tract consists of the nasal cavity, the nasopharynx, oropharynx, and laryngopharyx. Vibrissae (nose guard hairs) function to block insects and debris from entering the nose. The vestibule is the region just inside the cavity. Nasal conchae are folds of tissue that circulate air to ensure that most of it contacts mucous membranes, on which potential pathogens may be trapped. This process also humidifies air and gives an opportunity to sense olfactory cues in the environment.