Chapter 9: Joints

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the different stages of foot pain
Special movements of the foot can be classified as dorsiflexion, plantar flexion, inversion, and eversion. Dorsiflexion is a movement in which the toes are elevated. Plantar flexion is pointing the toes downward; it can be compared to pressing a gas pedal. Inversion is the medial movement of the soles and eversion is moving the soles laterally.
an image of the shoulder and shoulder area with arrows pointing up to the shoulder area
Other movements of synovial joints are abduction and adduction. Abduction is moving a body part away from the midline of the body. An example is raising an arm to one side of the body as is demonstrated in the picture above. Adduction is movement in the frontal plane back to the midline.
the man is flexing his muscles with both hands
Some movements of synovial joints are flexion and extension. Flexion decreases a joint angle; for example - bending of the elbow. Extension is a movement that straightens the joint. It normally will return the body part back to zero position. For example, straightening the elbow can be an example of extension. Hyperextension is extending a joint beyond the zero position.
different types of bones and their functions
Joint Classifications- Ball-and-socket: has a smooth hemispherical head that fits into a cup like socket, i.e. shoulder and hip joint. Condylar joints: an oval convex surface on one and a complementary shaped depression on the other bone, i.e. radio carpal joint. Saddle: concave in one direction and convex in other, i.e. trapeziometacarpal joint Plane: flat or slight convex/concave Hinge: moves freely on one plane, very little movement on the other plane Pivot: bone spins on longitudinal axis
an image of how to do exercises for the body
Axes of rotation depicts in what planes your arm, leg, wrist, and so on can in. The transverse, frontal, and sagittal planes. Here you can determine degrees of freedom. For example the shoulder joint has three degrees of freedom because it can abduct , flex, and internally rotate the arm.
the diagram shows different types of muscles and tendors for people to see in their own body
First-class lever: the muscles of the back of the neck are pulling on the occipital bone and prevent the head from tipping forward. Second-class lever: lifting a baby on your knee; the quadriceps femoris muscle of the anterior thigh elevates the tibia and it the resistance is the weight of the child. Third-class lever: the pressure is applied between the fulcrum and the resistance
an image of the back of a man's head with muscles highlighted in white
Shoulder Joint - Glenohumeral Joint - 3D Anatomy Tutorial
Here is a in-depth look at the glenohumeral joint (aka the shoulder joint), which consists between the glenoid cavity of the scapula and the head of the humerus. This joint demonstrates a high range of motion and is stabilized by many muscles including those of the rotator cuff: supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, and subscapularis. This joint is also well known for is ability to easily dislocate, due to its large range of motion.
an image of the skeleton and its structures
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Examples of CARTILAGINOUS, or amphiarthrodial joints. Bones are linked by cartilage. There are two types: Synchondroses are bound by hyaline cartilage; for example, the attachment of the first rib to the sternum. A symphysis is two bones bound by fibrous cartilage, like the pubic symphysis and the intervertebral disc connecting two vertebrae.
the bones are labeled with arrows pointing to different areas in which they can be seen
An example of a FIBROUS joint, also called a synarthrosis joint. Adjacent bones are bound by collagen fibers. This is an example of a SUTURE, but there are also gomphoses and syndesmoses. An example of a gomphosis is the attachment of the tooth to its socket. An example of a syndesmosis is between the shafts of the radius and ulna. Sutures and gomphoses have short fibers with little movement, while syndesmoses have longer fibers for more mobility.
the diagram shows different types of rock formations
An example of a BONY JOINT: Infants are born with left and right frontal bones, which ossifies to become a single frontal bone. Another example is the mandibular bone, the epiphyses and diaphyses of long bones, and the attachment of the first rib to the sternum. These joints begin as fibrous or cartilaginous joints before becoming bony.
Synovial joint accessory structures. Tendons help stabilize a joint since it attaches muscle to bone. Ligaments hold the bones of a joint together. Bursae are sacs filled with synovial fluid and function to cushion muscle and help tendons slide over joints. Also tendon/synovial sheaths are bursae that wrap around a tendon and they help tendons move freely in compact areas like the wrists and ankles. Health, Physiology, Synovial Fluid, Bursitis, Wellness, Bursitis Hip, Massage Therapy
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Synovial joint accessory structures. Tendons help stabilize a joint since it attaches muscle to bone. Ligaments hold the bones of a joint together. Bursae are sacs filled with synovial fluid and function to cushion muscle and help tendons slide over joints. Also tendon/synovial sheaths are bursae that wrap around a tendon and they help tendons move freely in compact areas like the wrists and ankles.
SYNOVIAL JOINTS are the common joints we think of (elbow, knee, shoulder). Some are limited in movement (vertebrae), but most are free. The two bones in the joint are covered in articular cartilage and separated by the joint cavityfilled with synovial fluid. This fluid functions to lubricate and nourish the cartilage and it’s membrane is made of fibroblast-like cells & macrophages. Some accessory structures to this joint include ligaments, bursae (sacs), and tendons. Rheumatoid Arthritis Symptoms, Osteoarthritis Vs Rheumatoid Arthritis, Osteoporosis Symptoms, Rheumatoid Arthritis Diet, Rheumatoid Arthritis, Osteoporosis, Osteoarthritis, Prevent Arthritis
Osteoarthritis vs. rheumatoid arthritis
SYNOVIAL JOINTS are the common joints we think of (elbow, knee, shoulder). Some are limited in movement (vertebrae), but most are free. The two bones in the joint are covered in articular cartilage and separated by the joint cavityfilled with synovial fluid. This fluid functions to lubricate and nourish the cartilage and it’s membrane is made of fibroblast-like cells & macrophages. Some accessory structures to this joint include ligaments, bursae (sacs), and tendons.
an x - ray image of the human body with bones and muscles highlighted in red
Joints link bone to muscles. Functions include support, protection, and movement. There are 4 main categories of joints: BONY joints occur when two bones ossify into a single bone (i.e. frontal bones & mandible); FIBROUS joints are bound by collagen, types include sutures, gomphoses, and syndesmoses (parietals, teeth, between tibia &fibula); CARTILAGINOUS joints are connected by cartilage, types include synchondroses (sternum to rib and clavicle) and symphyses (vertebrae); and SYNOVIAL joints.