Dr. Daniel Hale Williams graduated from the Chicago Medical School in 1883, and was one of only four doctors african descent in Chicago. Dr. Williams founded the first African American hospital as well as the first nursing course for Blacks. He was the first cardiology surgeon to perform a successful heart surgery with the chest open with a positive result and after the patient recovered, he lived for another 20 years.
For almost 70 years, Lucy Parsons fought for the rights of the poor and disenfranchised in the face of an increasingly oppressive industrial economic system. Her radical activism challenged the racist and sexist sentiment in a time when it was assumed that women were biologically determined to stay at home barefoot and pregnant. The Chicago police labeled her more dangerous than a thousand rioters..
Hazel W. Johnson-Brown: The first African-American woman general in history, Hazel W. Johnson-Brown is also a skilled nurse. She served as the chief of the Army Nurse Corps. and served as dean of the Walter Reed Army Institute School of Nursing. She was introduced to the army while working at a Veteran’s hospital. It is hard to believe, considering her accomplishments, that she was first rejected for nursing school at the West Chester School of Nursing because of her race.
African American Nurses in Australia, 1944.African Americans served in segregated units.The army was de-segrageted until 1949 when Pres. Truman signed it into law.Most people thought it would lower troop morale to serve with "Negro" troops. Sound familiar? Anyway, the history of blacks in the military since the Revolutionary war has been left out of the history books.Biddy Craft
Did you know there was an African American owned car manufacturer? The C.R. Patterson & Son Carriage Co. of Greenfield, Ohio became the nation's, and the world's, 1st & only African-American founded & owned car manufacturing company. The company began as a manufacturer of horse drawn carriages & ended up as a manufacturer of buses for both urban transportation systems & rural school needs. In 1915 they came out with a car that was considered more sophisticated than Henry Ford's Model T cars.
Zdenka Husserl holds a young bird. Zdenka was interred at Theresienstadt until the liberation. After the war Zdenka was placed on a transport of 300 child survivors to England sponsored by the British philanthropist, Leonard Montefiore. Following her arrival in England in August 1945, Zdenka was sheltered together with 23 other concentration camp survivors at the Finchley Road children's home in London.
Gisella Perl was forced to work as a doctor in Auschwitz concentration camp during the holocaust. She was ordered to report ever pregnant women do the physician Dr. Josef Mengele, who would then use the women for cruel experiments (e.g. vivisections) before killing them. She saved hundreds of women by performing abortions on them before their pregnancy was discovered, without having access to basic medical supplies. She became known as the “Angel of Auschwitz”.